Apollo Command and Service Module Shuttle

United States Patent 3,576,298 applied for in 1967 and issued
to the North American Rockwell Corp in 1971. ABSTRACT: An aerospace vehicle is described comprising a
substantially conical forward crew compartment or command
module mated to a substantially cylindrical rearward service
module. Aerodynamic fairings are provided along the midline
on the sides of the cylindrical portion and a substantial
distance aft thereof for providing lift at hypersonic velocities
and approximately vertical fins are provided on the fairings for
aerodynamic stability and control. Wings are mounted within the aerodynamic fairings at high velocities and pivotably extended there from at lower velocities and altitudes to provide low speed lift. Upon reentry into the earth's atmosphere hypersonic lift is provided
by the body and the fairings for bringing the vehicle to the area
of a selected landing site and, at lower flight speeds deeper into
the atmosphere, augmented lift is provided by the extended wings
for landing the vehicle on a conventional runway. A rocket engine for propulsion has a large expansion ratio bell
for use in the vacuum of space. The large ratio bell is jettisonable. Rear landing skids are pivotable into and out of the wake of the vehicle
to reduce the requirement for heat shielding. Similarly, reaction control rocket motors are also pivotable into and out of
the wake of the vehicle for minimizing heat protection requirements. Such a vehicle is readily adaptable to a broad
variety of space missions such as cargo ferry or satellite
recovery, and is reusable with minimum refurbishment.